Cabazon Court Case -
the legal foundation upon which Indian gaming law is built.
Regulatory Act ("IGRA") - Congress responded to Cabazon by
enacting IGRA, which establishes the federal legislative framework
for Indian Gaming.
Indian Tribe v. Arizona - a federal district judge in Arizona ruled
that the state must negotiate with the tribe and attempt to conclude
establishes the State Gaming Agency within the Department of Racing.
- the federal mediator chose the tribe's last, best offered compact
over the state's recommended compact. Negotiations followed
resulting in the "standard form" compacts.
Sixteen tribes had
signed compacts and ten casinos were in operation by December 31,
creates the Department of Gaming.
The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian
Community files a lawsuit in federal court seeking to force
tribal-state compact negotiations.
Seminole Court Case -
the U.S. Supreme Court declared provisions in IGRA allowing states
to be sued without their consent were unconstitutional.
A federal court judge dismisses the
Salt River Court Case based on the Seminole decision. The
Rumsey Court Case - the 9th Circuit
Court of Appeals held
that Class III gaming was to be examined game by game and allowed on
Indian land only if permitted by a specific state law.
Based on the Rumsey
decision, Governor Symington refuses to negotiate a standard form
compact with the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The
tribe's initiative measure requiring the governor to sign
a standard form compact with any tribe seeking a compact with the
State is placed on the general
election ballot. Voters approve the measure, but the law is
challenged in Superior Court. Ultimately, the Arizona Supreme Court
upholds the initiative measure.
Sears Case - the Superior Court
rules that the Governor of Arizona lacks the authority to negotiate
a compact with Salt River permitting slot machines and/or keno. The
decision is appealed to the Arizona Supreme Court.
The Arizona Supreme
Court overturns the decision in the Sears Case on the basis
that the Sears did not have standing to bring suit. Governor Hull
begins compact negotiations with the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian
Community and signs a compact on August 16, 1998.
The Governor begins
negotiating the renewal of the tribal-state compacts. Expiration of
the current compacts begin in June, 2003, if not renewed.
American Greyhound Case - Arizona horse and dog
tracks sue the Governor Hull in federal court seeking either an
injunction prohibiting the Governor from signing new compacts or a
ruling permitting the tracks to have slot machines.
court granted the request for an injunction in the American
Greyhound Case and issued a ruling that among other things, the state legislature had
unconstitutionally delegated its compacting authority to the
Governor, and the tribes were not an indispensable party. However, the ruling provided that the Governor did have
the authority to continue to negotiate compacts with the tribes, but
may not enter into new compacts without proper legislative approval.
The state appealed.
January/February. Governor Hull and 17 tribes successfully conclude
negotiations on an agreement for new tribal-state compacts.
April/May. The Governor and tribes take their
agreement, as a resolution, to the legislature for approval. The
legislature fails to pass the resolution.
June/July. The 17 tribes gather enough
signatures to put the tribal-state agreement on the 2002 General
Election ballot as Proposition 202. Two additional gaming
initiatives also appeared on the ballot, Proposition 200 sponsored
by the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) and Proposition 201
sponsored by the race track industry.
In September, the 9th Circuit Court of
Appeals overturns the decision in the American Greyhound Case.
The court ruled that the tribes were a necessary and indispensable
party, and that the district court abused its discretion in ruling
to the contrary. They vacated the lower court decision and
remanded it with instructions to dismiss the case. Power to sign
compacts is returned to the Governor.
In November, Proposition 202 passes.
Proposition 200 and 201, the other two gaming initiatives fail.
From December 2002
to January 2003, Governor Hull signed new Tribal-State Gaming
Compacts with 16 Tribes.
In 2003, Governor Janet Napolitano signed Compacts with an
additional five tribes.